Psychometric proprieties of the portuguese version of the frost multidimensional perfectionism scale

Supplementary Files

Table 1
Table 2
Table 3


factorial structure

How to Cite

Coreia, M. E. (2017). Psychometric proprieties of the portuguese version of the frost multidimensional perfectionism scale. International Journal of Psychological Research, 10(1), 8–17.


Abstract: Perfectionism is defined as the desire to achieve the highest standards of performance, in combination with unduly critical evaluations of one´s performance (Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). This study was designed to analyse the psychometric proprieties of the Portuguese version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS-F) using confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 556 Portuguese athletes completed the MPS-F. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test whether the proposed multi-factorial structure of MPS-F fits the Portuguese data well. The psychometric properties of the new model indicated that all constructs had good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. A multi-group analysis showed the cross validity of the model. The correlations between perfectionism, fear of failure and sport anxiety measures revealed evidence of its concurrent validity, providing evidence for the proposed model as a valid tool for assessing perfectionism in Portuguese sport contexts.


Ablard, K. E., & Parker, W. D. (1997). Parents’ achievement goals and perfectionism in their academically talented children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 651-668.

Anderson, J., & Gerbing, D. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411-423. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411

Arbuckle, J. (2009). AMOS18 reference guide (version 18). Chicago, IL: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.

Bentler, P., & Chou, C.P. (1987). Practical issues in structural modelling. Sociological Methods and Research, 16, 78-117.

Bentler, P. M., & Wu, E. J. C. (1993). EQS/Windows user’s guide. Los Angeles: BMDP Statistical Software.

Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

Biddle, B. J., & Marlin, M. M. (1987). Causality, confirmation, credulity, and structural equation modeling. Child Development, 58, 4-17.

Blunch N. J. (2008). Introduction to structural equation modeling using SPSS and AMOS. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Bollen, K. A., & Stine, R. A. (1993). Bootstrapping Goodness-of-Fit Measures in Structural Equation Models In Bollen, K. Long, J., Testing Structural Equation Models, 111-135. Sage Focus Edition, Newbury Park, CA.

Brown, T. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY. The Guildford Press.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group.

Campbell, D., & Fiske, D. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105. doi:10.1037/h0046016

Cheung, G., & Rensvold, R. (2002) Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9, 233-255. doi:10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5

Coen, S. P., & Ogles, B. M. (1993). Psychological characteristics of the obligatory runner: a critical examination of the anorexia analogue hypothesis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15, 338–354.

Conroy, D. E., Kaye, M. P., & Fifer, A. M. (2007). Cognitive links between fear of failure and perfectionism. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 25, 237-253. doi:10.1007/s10942-007-0052-7

Conroy, D. E., Willow, J. P., & Metzler, J. N. (2002). Multidimensional fear of failure measurement: The Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 76-90. doi:10.1080/10413200252907752

Correia, M. E., Rosado, A., & Serpa, S., (2015). Adaptation of the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory (PFAIp) in a Portuguese Sport Setting. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Cruz, J. F., & Gomes, A. R. (2007). Escala de Ansiedade no Desporto (EAD-2) – Versão para investigação [The Sport Anxiety Scale-2]. Braga, Portugal: Universidade do Minho.

Davey, A. (2010). Statistical power analysis with missing data: A structural equation modeling approach. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluation structural equations models with unobservable variable and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39-50. doi:10.2307/3151312

Frost, R. O., & Henderson, K. J. (1991). Perfectionism and reactions to athletic competition. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13, 323-335.

Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., Mattia, J. I., & Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 119–126.

Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (2009). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hall, H. K., Kerr, A. W., & Matthews, J. (1998). Precompetitive anxiety in sport: The contribution of achievement goals and perfectionism. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20, 194-217.

Hofmann, R. (1995). Establishing factor validity using variable reduction in confirmatory factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 572-582.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1-55.

Kaye, M. P., Conroy, D. E., & Fifer, A. M. (2008). Individual differences in incompetence avoidance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 110-132.

Kline, R. B. (2004). Beyond significance testing: Reforming data analysis methods in behavioral research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practices of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Loehlin, J. C. (2003). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural equation analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mardia, K. V. (1970). Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications. Biometrika, 57, 519–530.

Markland, D., & Ingledew, D. K. (1997). The measurement of exercise motives: factorial validity and invariance across gender of a revised Exercise Motivations Inventory. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2, 361-376.

Marôco, J. (2010). Análise de equações estruturais: fundamentos teóricos, software & aplicações [Structural equation modeling: Theoretical foundations, software and aplications]. Lisboa, Portugal: Report Number.

Marsh, H. W. (2007). Application of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling in sport/exercise psychology. In G. Tenenbaum & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 774-798). New York, NY: Wiley.

Parker, W. D., & Adkins, K. K. (1995). A psychometric examination of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 17, 323-334.

Parker, W. D., & Stumpf, H. (1995). An examination of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale with a sample of academically talented children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 13, 372-383.

Sagar, S. S., & Stoeber, J. (2009). Perfectionism, Fear of Failure and Affective Responses to Success and Failure: The Central Role of Fear of Experiencing Shame and Embarrassment. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychological, 31, 602-627.

Schumaker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Psychology Press.

Serpa, S., Alves, P., & Barreiros, A. (2004). Versão Portuguesa da Multidimensonal Perfectionism Scale (MPSp): Processos de Tradução, Adaptação e Verificação Psicométrica.

Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., Cumming, S. P., & Grossbard, J. R. (2006). Measurement of multidimensional sport performance anxiety in children and adults: The Sport Anxiety Scale-2. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 28, 479-501.

West, S. G., Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables. Problems and remedies. In R.H. Hoyle (Ed.). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues and applications (pp. 56-75). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.