Pre-, peri- and postnatal risk factors associated with gender in children with autism


risk factors

How to Cite

Lara Correa, D. L., Utria Rodríguez, O., & Ávila-Toscano, J. H. (2012). Pre-, peri- and postnatal risk factors associated with gender in children with autism. International Journal of Psychological Research, 5(2), 77–90.


This study was undertaken in order to identify the relationship between gender of children with autism and risk factors before/during pregnancy and childbirth. An analysis of 66 clinical records was divided into two groups defined by gender of children diagnosed with autism in Bogotá (Colombia). The data were collected with the Maternal Perinatal Risk Questionnaire and analyzed with Pearson Chi square. The most significant risks associated with gender in the minors were voluntary abortions, maternal difficulties in a previous pregnancy, surgery during pregnancy, conflicting parental relationships, demanding physical and cognitive activity, consumption of drugs in the mother, duration of pregnancy and birth weight. Among men there was as many prenatal factors while among girls had an enrollment over perinatal factors (before and during labor) and psychosocial.


Aylward, E. H., Minshew, N. J., Field, K., Sparks, B. F. & Singh, N. (2002).Effects of age on brain volume and head circumference in autism.Neurology,59(2), 175-183.

Baio, J. (2008). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders – autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008.Morbidity andMortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 63(s3), 1-19.

Baird, G., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Wheelwright, S. & Drew, A.(2001). Screening and surveillance for autism and pervasive developmental disorders.Archive of Disease in Childhood, 84(6), 468-475.

Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D. &, Charman, T. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the special needs and autism project (SNAP). Lancet, 368(9531), 210–215.

Bertrand, J., Mars, A., Boyle, C., Bove, C., Yeargin-Allsopp, M. &Decoufle, P. (2001). Prevalence of autism in a United States population: the Brick Township, New Jersey, investigation. Pediatrics, 108(5), 1155–1161.

Beversdorf, D. Q., Manning, S. E., Hillier, A., Anderson, S. L., Nordgren, R. E., Walters, S. E.,… Bauman, M. L. (2005). Timing of Prenatal stressors and Autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 35(4), 471-478.

Buchmayer, S., Johansson, S., Johansson, A.,Hultman, C. M., Sparén, P. &Cnattingius,

S. (2009).Can association between preterm birth and autism be explained by maternal or neonatal morbidity? Pediatrics, 124(5), 817-825.

Burd, L., Severud, R., Kerbashian, J. & Klug, M. (1999).Prenatal and perinatal risk factor for autism.Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 27(6), 441-450.

Ciaranello, R. D. (1996). Linkage and molecular genetics of infantile autism. In Watson, S. J. (Ed.),Buiology of Schizofrenia and Affective Disease. Washintong: American Psychiatric Press.

Cukier, S. (2005).Aspectosclínicos, biológicos y neuropsicológicosdelTrastornoAutista: hacia una perspectiva integradora. Revista Argentina de Psiquiatría, 16, 273-278.

Croen, L.A., Grether, J. K. &Selvin, S. (2002). Descriptive epidemiology of autism in a California population: Who is at risk? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(3), 217–224.

Deykin, E. Y. &MacMahon, B. (1980).Pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal complications among autistic children.American Journal Disabled Children,134(9), 860–864.

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.


Download data is not yet available.