This research examined the dimensionality and the correlates of self-reported cognitive failures. The first goal was to determine what factors, in addition to a general one, are needed to explain self-reported cognitive failures. To explore this issue, both Rasch measurement and confirmatory factor analysis were employed. The second goal was to determine if cognitive failures might be predicted with personality factors, general cognitive ability, and the need for cognition. A sample of 552 USAF airmen responded to the Broadbent Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), a Big-Five personality inventory, the Abstract Reasoning Test, the Speeded Cognitive Ability Test, and the Need for Cognition survey. Both Rasch modeling and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a single factor dominated CFQ responses. Regression analysis showed that CFQ responses were predicted well by personality factors (R = .60).
Baird, B., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2011). Back to the future: autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering. Consciousness and cognition, 20(4), 1604-1611.
Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 Structural Equations. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc.
Bridger, R. S., Johnsen, S. Å., & Brasher, K. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1515-1524. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2013.821172
Broadbent, D. E., Broadbent, M. H., & Jones, J. L. (1986). Performance correlates of self-reported cognitive failure and of obsessionality. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25(4), 285-299.
Broadbent, D. E., Cooper, P. F., FitzGerald, P., & Parkes, K. R. (1982). The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. British journal of clinical psychology, 21(1), 1-16.
Brown, K., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The Benefits of Being Present: Mindfulness and Its Role in Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822– 848.
Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116-131.
Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., Feinstein, J. A., & Jarvis, W. B. (1996). Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: The life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition. Psychological bulletin, 119(2), 197-253.
Carpenter, P. A., Just, M. A., & Shell, P. (1990). What one intelligence test measures: a theoretical account of the processing in the Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Psychological review, 97(3), 404-431.
Carrigan, N., & Barkus, E. (2016). A systematic review of cognitive failures in daily life: healthy populations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 63, 29-42.
Chaiken, S. R., Kyllonen, P. C., & Tirre, W. (2000). Organization and components of psychomotor ability. Cognitive Psychology, 40(3), 198-226.
Christal, R. E. (1993). R&D Summary report F33615-91-D-0010. Armstrong Laboratories, Brooks AFB.
Cohen, A. R., Stotland, E., & Wolfe, D. M. (1955). An experimental investigation of need for cognition. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(2), 291-294. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0042761
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Eribaum Associates. Inc.
Collis, J. M., & Barucky, J. M. (1999). "Big Five" Personality Factors Research Using Christal's Self Description Inventory. METRICA INC BRYAN TX.
Derakshan, N., & Eysenck, M. W. (2009). Anxiety, processing efficiency, and cognitive performance: New developments from attentional control theory. European Psychologist, 14(2), 168-176.
Di Fabio, A. (2006). Decisional procrastination correlates: personality traits, self-esteem or perception of cognitive failure? International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 6(2), 109-122.
Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual review of psychology, 41(1), 417-440.
Embretson, S. E. (1998). A cognitive design system approach to generating valid tests: Application to abstract reasoning. Psychological Methods, 3(3), 380-396. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.3.3.380
Gugerty, L. J., & Tirre, W. C. (2000). Individual differences in situation awareness. In M. R. Endsley, & D. J. Garland (Edits.), Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement (págs. 249-276). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gustafsson , J. E. (1994). General intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Intelligence (págs. 469-474). NY: Macmillian Publishing Company.
Gustafsson , J. E., & Balke , G. (1993). General and Specific Abilities as Predictors of School Achievement. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 28(4), 407-434. doi:https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2804_2
Hassanzadeh-Rangi, N., Farshad, A. A., Khosravi, Y., Zare, G., & Mirkazemi, R. (2014). Occupational cognitive failure and its relationship with unsafe behaviors and accidents. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics, 20(2), 265-271.
Houston, D. M. (1989). The relationship between cognitive failure and self-focused attention. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 85-86.
Kane, M. J., Brown, L. H., McVay, J. C., Silvia, P. J., Myin-Germeys, I., & Kwapil, T. R. (2007). For whom the mind wanders, and when: An experience-sampling study of working memory and executive control in daily life. Psychological science, 18(7), 614-621.
Klockner, K., & Hicks, R. E. (2015). Cognitive failures at work, mindfulness, and the Big Five. GSTF Journal of Psychology (JPsych), 2(1), 1-7.
Kyllonen, P. C., & Christal, R. E. (1990). Reasoning ability is (little more than) working-memory capacity?! Intelligence, 14(4), 389-433.
Larson, G. E., Alderton, D. L., Neideffer, M., & Underhill, E. (1997). Further evidence on dimensionality and correlates of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. British Journal of Psychology, 88(1), 29-38.
Matthews, G., Coyle, K., & Craig, A. (1990). Multiple factors of cognitive failure and their relationships with stress vulnerability. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 12(1), 49-65.
McVay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2009). Conducting the train of thought: Working memory capacity, goal neglect, and mind wandering in an executive-control task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35(1), 196-204.
McVay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2010). Does mind wandering reflect executive function or executive failure? Comment on Smallwood and
Schooler (2006) and Watkins (2008). Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 188-197. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018298
Mrazek, M. D., Franklin, M. S., Phillips, D. T., Baird, B., & Schooler, J. W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological science, 24(5), 776-781.
Norman, D. A. (1981). Categorization of action slips. Psychological Review, 88(1), 1-15. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.88.1.1
Paulhus, D. L. (1991). Measurement and control of response bias. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsma, Measures of social psychological attitudes. Vol. 1. Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (págs. 17-59). San Diego: ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-590241-0.50006-X
Pollina, L. K., Greene, A. L., Tunick, R. H., & Puckett, J. M. (1992). Dimensions of everyday memory in young adulthood. British Journal of Psychology, 83(3), 305-321.
Rasch, G. (1960/1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests (Expanded Edition, Chicago, University of Chicago Press). Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Educational Research.
Reason, J. T. (1977). Skill and error in everyday life. In M. Howe (Ed.), Adult learning (págs. 21-45). London: Wiley.
Reason, J. T. (1979). Actions not as planned: The price of automation. In G. Underwood, & R. Stevens (Edits.), Aspects of consciousness (págs. 67-89). London: Academic Press.
Reason, J. T., & Lucas, D. (1984). Absent-mindedness in shops: Its incidence, correlates and consequences. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23(2), 121-131.
Robertson, I. H., Manlya, T., Andradea, J., Baddeleya, B. T., & Yienda, J. (1997). `Oops!': Performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects. Neuropsychologia, 35(6), 747-758. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(97)00015-8
Robison, M. K., & Unsworth, N. (2017). Working memory capacity and mind-wandering during low-demand cognitive tasks. Consciousness and Cognition, 52, 47-54.
Robison, M. K., Gath, K. I., & Unsworth, N. (2017). The neurotic wandering mind: An individual differences investigation of neuroticism, mind-wandering, and executive control. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(4), 649-663. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2016.1145706
Sarason, I. G. (1988). Anxiety, self-preoccupation and attention. Anxiety Research, 1(1), 3-7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/10615808808248215
Shavelson, R. J. & Webb, N. M. (1991). Generalizability theory: A primer. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Smallwood, J. (2010). Why the global availability of mind wandering necessitates resource competition: Reply to McVay and Kane (2010). Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 202-207. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018673
Smallwood, J., & Andrews-Hanna, J. (2013). Not all minds that wander are lost: the importance of a balanced perspective on the mind-wandering state. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(441), 1-6.
Thompson, E. P., Chaiken, S., & Hazlewood, J. D. (1993). Need for cognition and desire for control as moderators of extrinsic reward effects: A person × situation approach to the study of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(6), 987-999. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1687
Tirre, W. C., & Field, K. A. (2002). Structural Models of Abilities Measured by the Ball Aptitude Battery. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62(5), 830-856. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/001316402236881
Tirre, W. C., & Raouf, K. K. (1998). Structural models of cognitive and perceptualmotor abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(5), 603-614. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)80011-1
Wallace, J. C., Kass, S. J., & Stanny, C. J. (2002). The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire Revisited: Dimensions and Correlates. The Journal of General Psychology, 129(3), 238-256. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/00221300209602098
Wine, J. (1971). Test anxiety and direction of attention. Psychological Bulletin, 76(2), 92-104. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031332
Wright, B. D., & Stone, M. H. (1979). Best Test Design. Rasch Measurement. Chicago, IL: MESA Press.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research.