Introduction: the choice of strategies to cope with stress has differential effects on individual and organizational
outcomes (e.g. well-being and performance at work). This study examined to what extent individuals differing in
their positive psychological resources (optimism, hope, self-efficacy and resilience) implement different strategies
to cope with stress in terms of change, acceptance, or withdrawal from a source of stress in an organizational
Method: A questionnaire was filled out by 554 employees from different organizations representing a wide range
of jobs and positions.
Results: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; c2(7) = 27:64, p < :01, GFI = :99, NFI = :91, CFI = :93,
RMSEA = :07)
Conclusion: the results indicated that psychological resources (optimism, hope, self-efficacy and resilience) were
positively related to coping by change and by acceptance and negatively related to withdrawal. The theoretical
implications are discussed.
Amiot, C. E., Terry, D. J., Jimmieson, N. L., & Callan, V. J. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of coping processes during a merger: Implications for job satisfaction and organizational identification. Journal of Management, 32(4), 552-574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206306287542
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2009). Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human Resource Management, 48(5), 677-693. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20294
Avey, J., Reichard, R., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2), 127-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.20070
Carver, C. S. (1998). Resilience and thriving: Issues, models, and linkages. Journal of Social Issues, 54(2), 245–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1998.tb01217.x
Carver, C. S. & Connor-Smith, J. (2010). Personality and coping, Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 679-704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100352
Dewe, P. J., O'Driscoll, M. P., & Cooper, C. L. (2010). Coping with work stress: A review and critique (chapter 2). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470711712
Elizur, D. (1984). Facet of work values: A structural analysis of work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(3), 379-390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.3.379
Epstein-Mathias, S. (2003). Meta-analyses of coping processes. Doctoral dissertation. Ramat Gan, IL: Bar- Ilan University.
Folkman, S. (1984). Personal control and stress and coping processes: A theoretical analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 839-852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1999
Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J.T. (2007). Positive affect and meaning-focused coping during significant psychological stress. In M. Hewstone, H.A.W. Schut, J.B.F. De Wit, K. Van Den Bos, & M.S. Stroebe (Eds.), The scope of social psychology: Theory and applications (pp. 193-208). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Guttman, L. (1946). The test-retest reliability of qualitative data. Psychometrica, 11(2), 81-95. doi:10.1007/BF02288925
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513
Hobfoll, S. E. (2011). Conservation of resources theory: Its implication for stress. In S. Folkman (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping (pp. 127–147). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Holahan, C., Moos, R., & Schaefer, J. (1996). Coping, stress resistance, and growth: Conceptualizing adaptive functioning. In M. Zeidner & N. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of Coping: Theory, Research, Applications (pp. 24-43). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1989). LISREL 7: A guide to the program and applications (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.
Korner, I. J. (1970). Hope as a method of coping. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 34(2), 134-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0029004
Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2850.1999.00227-9.x
Lazarus, R. S. & Cohen-Charash, Y. (2001). Discrete emotions in organizational life. In R.L. Payne & C.R. Cooper (eds.), Emotions at Work: Theory, Research and applications for management (pp. 45-81). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.
Luthans, F., Vogelgesang G. R., & Lester P. B. (2006). Developing the psychological capital of resilience. Human Resource Development Review, 5(1), 25-44. doi:10.1177/1534484305285335
Luthans, F., Youssef-Morgan, C. M. & Avolio B. J. (2015). Psychological capital and beyond. New York, NY: Oxford, University Press.
Masten, A. S., & Wright, M. O. D. (2010). Resilience over the lifespan: Developmental perspectives on resistance, recovery and transformation. In J. W. Reich, A. J. Zautra, & J. S. Hall (Eds.), Handbook of adult resilience (pp. 213-238). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
McDonald, R.P., & Ho, M.R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 64-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.64
Pines, A. (2011). Burnout at work: Causes, results and coping strategies. Ben Shemen, IL: Modan Publishing.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1998). Learned optimism (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Pocket Books (Simon and Schuster).
Skinner, E. A., Edge, K., Altman, J., & Sherwood, H. (2003). Searching for the structure of coping: A review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychological Bulletin, 129(2), 216-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.216
Smith, B. W., Tooley, E. M., Christopher, P. J., & Kay, V. S. (2010). Resilience as the ability to bounce back from stress: A neglected personal resource? The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 166-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2010.482186
Snyder, C. R. (2000). Handbook of Hope. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Snyder, C. R., Irving, L., & Anderson, J. (1991). Hope and health: Measuring the will and the ways. In C.R. Snyder & D.R. Forsyth (Eds.), Handbook of social and clinical psychology (pp. 285-305). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
Tugade, M. M. (2011). Positive emotions and coping: Examining dual-process models of resilience. In S. Folkman (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Stress, Health, and Coping (pp.186-199). New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195375343.013.0010
Westman, M. (2004). Strategies for coping with business trips: A qualitative exploratory study. International Journal of Stress Management, 11(2), 167-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.11.2.167
To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate.
The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.