The short index of self-actualization: a factor analysis study in an Italian sample


Self-Actualization Scale
Short Index of Self-Actualization
Psychometric properties
Personal Orientation Inventory
Personal Orientation Dimensions.

How to Cite

Faraci, P., & Cannistraci, S. (2015). The short index of self-actualization: a factor analysis study in an Italian sample. International Journal of Psychological Research, 8(2), 23–33.


The concept of self-actualization has been the subject of much theoretical speculation over the years. The essential meaning entails the discovery of the real self and its expression and development. As for the instruments available to measure the construct, there are currently several scales considered to be suitable to this end. However, many of these have been considered too long or presented problems with inadequate validation. This is the reason why a short index of self-actualization has been developed (Jones & Crandall, 1986). This index, best known as the Short Index of Self-Actualization or the Self-Actualization Scale (SAS), is now a widely used short form to measure self-actualization. The present study provides a psychometric analysis of the SAS, in order to highlight its strengths and weaknesses and to offer a starting point to a further and broaden investigation.


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