Supporting protest movements: the effect of the legitimacy of the claims
PDF

Keywords

Legitimacy
protest
democracy
threat
value-oriented citizenship.

How to Cite

Passini, S., & Morselli, D. (2015). Supporting protest movements: the effect of the legitimacy of the claims. International Journal of Psychological Research, 8(2), 10–22. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.1506

Abstract

Past research has investigated the motivations behind support to protest actions by mainly focusing on the relationship between the perceptions of protest movements and support itself. The aim of the present research is to extend this research also by considering the qualitative content of the claims advanced by the protesters. We analyzed whether supporting a protest depends on the legitimacy of the advanced claim (i.e. in terms of adherence to democratic principles) or on the legitimacy attributed to that group. One hundred and eighty Italian citizens (45.9 % women; M age = 41.64, SD = 13.69) responded to an online questionnaire concerning a protest movement. The design included 2×2 conditions: non-threatening vs. threatening type of group and unbound vs. restricted protesters’ claims. The results showed that support given to the protest is overlooked when the group is perceived as more threatening. However, the perception of the protest group has no effect on value-oriented participants who instead focus on the claims.
https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.1506
PDF

References

Aiken, L. S. & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.

Altemeyer, B. (1996). The authoritarian specter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bruce St John, R. (2008). Redefining the Libyan revolution: the changing ideology of Muammar al-Qaddafi. The Journal of North African Studies, 13(1), 91-106.

Chryssochoou, X. & Volpato, C. (2004). Social influence and the power of minorities: An analysis of the communist manifesto. Social Justice Research, 17, 357-388.

Giugni, M. (1999). How social movements matter: Past research, present problems, future development. In M. Giugni, D. McAdams & C. Tilly (Eds.), How social movements matter (pp. 13-32). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Harris, L. T. & Fiske, S. T. (2006). Dehumanizing the lowest of the low: Neuroimaging responses to extreme out-groups. Psychological Science, 17, 847-853.

Inglehart, R. & Abramson, P. R. (1999). Measuring postmaterialism. American Political Science Review, 93(3), 665-677.

Kelly, C. & Breinlinger, S. (1996). The social psychology of collective action. Basingstoke, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Kelman, H. C. (2001). Reflections on social and psychological processes of legitimization and delegitimization. In J. T. Jost & B. Major (Eds.), The psychology of legitimacy: Emerging perspectives on ideology, justice, and intergroup relations (pp. 54–73). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kelman, H. C. & Hamilton, V. L. (1989). Crimes of obedience. Toward a social psychology of authority and responsibility. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Klandermans, B. & Oegema, D. (1987). Potentials, networks, motivations, and barriers: Steps towards participation in social movements. American Sociological Review, 52, 519-531.

Klandermans, B. (2002). How group identification helps to overcome the dilemma of collective action. American Behavioral Scientist, 45, 887-900.

Klein, O., Spears, R. & Reicher, S. (2007). Social identity performance: Extending the strategic side of SIDE. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 28-45.

Jost, J. T., Chaikalis-Petritsis, V., Abrams, D., Sidanius, J., Van Der Toorn, J. & Bratt, C. (2012). Why men (and women) do and don’t rebel effects of system justification on willingness to protest. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(2), 197–208.

Meeus, J., Duriez, B., Vanbeselaere, N., Phalet, K. & Kuppens, P. (2009). Examining dispositional and situational effects on outgroup attitudes. European Journal of Personality, 23, 307-328.

Merton, R. K. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York: The Free Press.

Mirisola, A. & Seta, L. (2013). Pequod: Moderated regression package. R package version 0.0-3. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=pequod

Morselli, D. & Passini, S. (2012). Measuring moral inclusion: A validation of the inclusion/exclusion of other groups scale. LIVES Working Papers, 14, 1-18.

Moscovici, S. & Pérez, J. A. (2007). A study of minorities as victims. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 725-746.

Mugny, G. (1982). The power of minorities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mugny, G. & Pérez, J. A. (1991). The social psychology of minority influence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Norris, P. (2002). Democratic phoenix: reinventing why political activism. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Passini, S. (2008). Exploring the multidimensional facets of authoritarianism: Authoritarian aggression and social dominance orientation. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 67(1), 51-60.

Passini, S. & Morselli, D. (2009). Authority relationships between obedience and disobedience. New Ideas in Psychology, 27, 96-106.

Passini, S., & Morselli, D. (2010). Disobeying an illegitimate request in a democratic or authoritarian system. Political Psychology, 31, 341-356.

Passini, S. & Morselli, D. (2011). In the name of democracy: Disobedience and value-oriented citizenship. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 21, 255-267.

Passini, S. & Morselli, D. (2013). The triadic legitimacy model: Understanding support to disobedient groups. New Ideas in Psychology, 31, 98-107.

Pornpitakpan, C. (2004). The persuasiveness of source credibility: A critical review of five decades’ evidence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 243–281.

R E S E A R C H

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH Supporting Protest Movements

Passini and Morselli (2015) Int.j.psychol.res. 8 (2) PP. 10 - 22

Rucht, D. (2004). Movement allies, adversaries, and third parties. In D. A. Snow, S. A. Soule & H. Kriesi (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to social movements (pp. 197-216). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.

Simon, B. & Klandermans, B. (2001). Politicized collective identity: A social psychological analysis. American Psychologist, 56, 319-331.

Simon, B., Loewy, M., Stürmer, S.,Weber, U., Kampmeier, C., Freytag, P., Habig, C. & Spahlinger, P. (1998). Collective identity and social movement participation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 646-658.

Smith, H. J., Pettigrew, T. F., Pippin, G. M. & Bialosiewicz, S. (2012). Relative deprivation a theoretical and meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(3), 203–232.

Solimene, M. (2011). `These Romanians have ruined Italy'. Xoraxane Roma, Romanian Roma and Rome. Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 16, 637-651.

Stewart, A. L., Pratto, F., Zeineddine, F. B., Sweetman, J., Eicher, V., Licata, L. van Stekelenburg, J. (2015). International support for the Arab Uprisings: Understanding sympathetic collective action using theories of social identity and social dominance. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, in press.

Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of social conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-47). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Thomas, E. F. & Louis, W. R. (2014). When will collective action be effective? Violent and non-violent protests differentially influence perceptions of legitimacy and efficacy among sympathizers. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(2), 263–76. doi:10.1177/0146167213510525

van Zomeren, M., Fischer, A. & Spears, R. (2007). Testing the limits of tolerance: How intergroup anxiety amplifies negative and offensive responses to out-group-initiated contact. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1686-1699.

van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T. & Spears, R. (2008). Toward an integrative Social Identity model of Collective Action: A quantitative research synthesis of three socio-psychological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 504-535.

van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T. & Spears, R. (2012). On conviction's collective consequences: Integrating moral conviction with the social identity model of collective action. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 52-71.

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.